(Electric Charge) Every matter in this universe is made up of atoms. Atoms are electrically neutral. In fact, every atom has the same number of protons and electrons.
Protons are, positively charged.
In an atom, there are protons in the central nucleus with electrically neutral neutrons. Protons are strongly bound in the core.
Thus, protons can not be detached from the nucleus by any normal process.
Each electron revolves around the nucleus in the atomic orbit.
Electrons are negatively charged. The amount of electric charge of an electron is exactly the same as a proton, but of opposite nature. The electron is negative and the protons are positive.
So a piece of normally electrically neutral material, because it is
composed of electrically neutral atoms.
Electrons are also connected in atoms, but not in all. Few electrons farthest from the nucleus can be removed in some way.
When some of these detachable electrons, neutral atoms of a body,
are removed, there is a deficit of electrons in the body.
After removing some of the removable electrons from the neutral body, the total number of protons in the body becomes larger than the total number of electrons in the body. This positively charges the body.
A body can not only emit electrons but also absorb additional electrons
that are supplied from the outside.
In this case, the body becomes negatively charged.
A deficit or surplus of electrons in a matter body is, therefore, called
an electric charge.
The charge of an electron is very small and equal -1.6×10-19coulomb. Thus, the total 1/1.6×10-19or6.28×1019 number of electrons has an electric charge of 1 Coulomb. Thus, if a body lacks a 6.28 × 1019 number of excess electrons, the body has a negative electrical charge of 1 coulomb.
A number of electrons, the body has a positive electric charge of 1 Coulomb. On the other hand, when a body has an excess 6.28 × 1019 number of electrons, the body has a negative electric charge of 1 coulomb.