Nature of Electricity and Concept of Electricity
Electricity is the most common form of energy. It is used for various applications
like lighting, transportation, cooking, communication, factory production of various products and many more.
None of us know exactly what electricity is. The concept of electricity and the theories on which it is based can be developed by observing its various behaviors. In order to observe the nature of electricity it is necessary
to study the structure of matter.
Every substance in this universe is made up of extremely small
particles called molecules. The molecule is the smallest particle of a substance in which all identities of this substance are present. Molecules are made up of other
smaller particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can exist.
There are two types of substances. The substance, that is, molecules made up of similar atoms,
is called an element.
The material, the molecules of which consist of different atoms,
is called a compound.
The concept of electricity can be realized
from the atomic structures of substances.
Structure of Atom
An atom consists of a central core. The nucleus consists of positive protons and charges fewer neutrons. This nucleus is surrounded by a
number of orbital electrons. Each electron has a negative charge of – 1.602 × 10–19 coulombs, and each proton in the nucleus has a positive
charge of +1.602 × 10–19 coulombs.
Because of the opposite charge, there is an attraction between the nucleus and the electrons orbiting. Electrons have a relatively negligible mass compared to the mass of the nucleus. The mass of each proton and neutron is 1840 times the mass of an electron.
Since the value of the modulus of each electron and each proton is the same, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in an electrically neutral atom.
An atom becomes a positively charged ion when it loses electrons, and likewise an atom becomes a negative ion when it gains electrons.
Atoms can have weakly bound electrons in their outermost orbits. These electrons require a very small amount of energy to separate from their parent atoms.
These electrons are called free electrons,
which move randomly within the substance and are transferred from
one atom to another.
Any piece of substance that contains an unequal number of electrons
and protons is said to be electrically charged.
When there are more electrons than its protons, the substance is said
to be negatively charged,
and when there are more protons than electrons,
the substance is said to be positively charged.
The basic nature of electricity is that whenever a negatively charged
body is connected to a positively charged body by a conductor,
the excess electrons flow from the negative body to the positive body to make up for the deficiency. Electrons in this positive body.
Hope you understood the basic concept of electricity from the explanation above. Some materials contain many free electrons at normal room temperature. Well-known examples of this type of material are silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, etc.
The movement of these free electrons can easily be directed in a
if the difference in electrical potential is applied across the workpiece
of these materials.
Due to the abundance of free electrons, these materials have good electrical conductivity.
These materials are called good conductors.
The drift of electrons in a conductor in one direction
is called current.
In fact, electrons flow from the lower potential (-Ve) to the upper potential (+ Ve),
but the general conventional direction of current was considered from
the highest potential point to the lower potential point,
so the conventional direction of current was exactly opposite to the direction of electron flow.
In non-metallic materials such as glass, mica, slate, porcelain, the outermost orbit is complete and
there is almost no chance of electrons
being lost from their outermost shell. There is therefore practically no
free electron in this type of material.
Therefore, these materials cannot conduct electricity, in other words, the electrical conductivity of these materials is very poor. One such material is known as non-conductive
or electrical insulation.
The nature of electricity is to flow through a conductor while an
electrical potential difference is applied across it,
but not to pass through the insulator even when a large
electrical potential difference is applied across it.