Certain inventions have changed human civilization. The first invention was the wheel, the second invention was electricity, the third invention was telecommunications, and the fourth invention was the computer. We will discuss the basic introduction of electricity. Every substance in this universe is made up of many atoms,
and every atom has the same number of negative electrons and positive protons.
As a result, we can say that every neutral substance contains the same number of electrons and protons. Protons are immobile and strongly bound to the atomic nucleus.
Electrons are also bound to atoms and orbit the nucleus on
different levels. However, some electrons can move freely or leave their orbit due to external influences. These free and weakly bound electrons generate electricity.
In the neutral state, the number of electrons and protons in each piece of material is the same. However, when the number of electrons in a substance becomes greater than the number of protons, the substance becomes negatively charged because the net charge of each electron is negative. When the number of electrons in a substance becomes less than the number of protons, the substance becomes positively charged.
The concentration of free electrons always tries to be uniform. this is often the sole reason for the electricity. Let’s explain intimately. When two conductive bodies with different charges inherit contact, electrons move from the body with higher electron concentration to the body with lower electron concentration so as to equalize the electron concentration of the 2 bodies. This charge movement (because electrons are charged particles)
The related terms in electricity
1.Electric charge: As already mentioned, the number of electrons and the number of protons in a neutral body are the same. The extent of the negative charge and the positive change is the same even in a neutral body since the electrical charge of an electron and a proton are numerically the same, but their polarity is opposite.
But for some reason the balance of the number of electrons and protons is distributed in a body,
the body is electrically
When the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons, the body becomes negatively charged and the amount of charge depends on the number of excess electrons in the body.
In the same way, we can explain the positive change in the body. Here the number of electrons becomes smaller than that of protons. The positivity of the body depends on the difference between protons and electrons in the body.
2. Electric current: When the load flows from one point to another in order to ensure that the load is evenly distributed,
the speed at which the load flows
is called electric
current. This rate depends mainly on the difference between the state of charge of two points and the conditions of the path through which the charge flows. The unit of electrical current is the ampere and it is only coulombs per second.
3.Electrical potential: The charge level of a body is called electrical potential.
When a body is loaded
it can work. The electrical potential is the measure of the ability of a charged body to work. The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the difference in electrical potential between two ends of the conductor.
The electrical potential can be represented as the difference in the water level in two water reservoirs connected to a pipe.
The speed of the water flowing from the upper to the lower tank depends on the level difference or the height difference of the water in the tanks and not on the amount of water stored in the tanks.
Tank. Likewise, the electric current between two bodies depends on the potential difference between two bodies and not on the amount of charge stored in the bodies.
4. Electric field: There is always a force between two almost placed
charged bodies. The force can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the type of charge between two bodies.
When a charged body enters the neighboring area of another charged body, the force can be practically felt.
Space surrounds a charged body in which another charged body can experience a force called the old body’s electric field.
These above mentioned four terms are the main parameters of electricity.
How is Electricity Generated
There are three basic methods that we generally use to generate electricity.
1.Electromechanical process: When a conductor moves in a magnetic field and the conductor intersects the lines of field flux,
electricity is generated in
the conductor. All electrical generators such as direct current generators, alternators and all types of dynamos work according to this principle.
2.Electrochemical process: With all battery types, electricity is generated through chemical reactions.
Here chemical energy is converted into
3.Solid State Power Generation: This is the most advanced method of generating power. Here, free electrons and holes are generated at a PN junction,
and the distribution of charge carriers is unbalanced across the
PN junction when
the junction is
exposed to light. These free electrons and holes and their unbalanced distribution across the junction cause electricity in an external circuit. Solar PV cells work according to this principle.
Types of Electricity
1.When electricity is generated in the armature of a generator,
it always alternates. This means that the polarity of electricity changes in a periodic interval. With direct current generators, the current generated in the armature is rectified via a switch. In the case of alternators,
the alternating current generated in the armature is fed to the external circuit via slip rings.
2.If the current does not change direction,
it is called
direct current. Batteries and solar cells generate direct current
Generation Transmission and Distribution of Electricity
As soon as electricity is generated in a power plant,
it is amplified by a step-up transformer for transmission. Power generation at a low voltage level is practical and economical.
However, low voltage transmission is not economical. In electrical transmission, however,
the electricity generated is first increased
and then reduced after transmission through step-down
transformers for the purpose of energy distribution.
Power generation, the transmission of electricity, and the distribution
of electricity are usually done
with a three-phase system.
AC transmission at very, very high voltage is not always economical and therefore
is sometimes used. The household power system can be single-phase, but all commercial, industrial, and major household supplies are three-phase.